Scientific Mining Journal

Scientific Mining Journal

Volume 59 - No 1 (March 2020)
Zeolite Synthesis by Alkali Fusion Method Using Two Different Fly Ashes Derived From Turkish Thermal Power Plants
DOI 10.30797/madencilik.70548 Soner Topa, Hüseyin Vapur
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ABSTRACT In this study, Faujasite (Na-LSX) (3.5(Ca0.3)3.5(Na0.6)3.5(Mg0.1)Al7Si17O48•32(H2O)) type zeolites and Ca-Filipsite (CaK0.6Na0.4Si5.2Al2.8O16•6(H2O)) type zeolites were produced from Sugözü Thermal Power Plant and Çatalağzı Thermal Power Plant fly ashes by alkali fusion method followed by water leaching, respectively. In these methods, fly ashes and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were mixed in certain proportions and sintered at 600 °C in ash furnace. Then, zeolites were obtained from the ground materials after water leaching and solid/liquid separation, respectively. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) analyses were used to characterize the synthesized zeolites. The zeolites synthesized with Sugözü fly ashes in a ratio of 1:2 had 136.93 meq/100 g CEC, whereas the CEC of synthesized zeolite from Çatalağzı fly ashes was found to be 247.88 meq/100 g. As a result, zeolites, which can be used as wastewater treatment agent, energy storage material, catalyst and separator, were synthesized by using 2 different Class F fly ash.
Effect of Rock Surface Roughness on Schmidt Hardness Measurements
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Determination of hardness with Schmidt Hammer is an interdisciplinary experimental method used by mining, geology and civil engineers. Surface roughness is an important parameter affecting the Schmidt hardness. In this study, hardness measurements were made on natural, grinded out and cut surfaces and on core samples and their results were compared. Furthermore, roughness properties of each surface were determined and their relations with hardness values were investigated. The highest hardness values and the lowest standard deviations were obtained from cut surfaces, while the lowest hardness values and the highest standard deviations were taken from natural surfaces. In this study, as the surface roughness decreases, hardness values were seen to increase and standard deviation values were found to decrease. As a result, the roughness of the surface where the Schmidt Hammer is applied should be eliminated and the test surface should be reevaluated if the standard deviation is high.
Box-Behnken Experimental Design For the Effect of Microwave Heating on High Sulphidic Gold Flotation Concentrate: Optimization and Modelling
DOI 10.30797/madencilik.705491 Birgül Benli, Atacan Adem
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In this study, the effects of microwave heating on sulphidic refractory gold concentrate were investigated. When microwave energy is applied, the power (Watt), time (minute) and mass (g) independent variables, which are the effective parameters of the heating or roasting process, are designed as 15 experiments over 3 variable Box-Behnken and model equations are developed for dependent variable. Gold ore used in the optimization studies is the flotation concentrate which has been reached to 4 ppm Au and 21% sulphur content in our previous Denver flotation studies obtained from the western part of Turkey, Aegean region. Minitab program was used to analyse optimization values, it was found that the transfer of 680 W microwave energy on the sample in 3 g amount was sufficient during 30 minutes.
Production of Cobalt as A Critical Metal From Primary and Secondary Resources
DOI 10.30797/madencilik.706490 Banu Yaylalı, Ersin Y. Yazıcı, Oktay Celep, Hacı Deveci
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Cobalt is utilised in various high-tech products such as jet engines, super alloys and rechargeable batteries. In view of its relatively high economic importance and supply risk, European Union (EU) has listed cobalt as one of the “critical raw materials”. About 84% of cobalt produced from primary resources is extracted as a by-product of copper and nickel production. Production of cobalt, particularly from lateritic nickel ores, is increasing. Recently, hydrometallurgical processes such as high pressure acid leaching (HPAL) are commonly applied for extraction of Ni/Co from laterites. Based on the increasing demand for cobalt, the extraction of cobalt from secondary resources (copper smelting slags, flotation tailings (pyrite concentrates), pyrite ashes) by bio/ hydrometallurgical methods have been extensively investigated. In this paper, the importance of cobalt as a critical raw material, resource potential of cobalt in the world and Turkey, and industrial processes for production of cobalt from ores are reviewed in detail. Previous studies on the recovery of cobalt from primary and secondary resources are discussed. In addition, process flowsheets of various industrial plants for the recovery of cobalt from lateritic ores and flotation tailings in our country are presented.
Surface Modification of Calcite: Part I. Production Technology and Used Equipments
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Calcite, an industrial raw material, is used as filler mineral in many sectors. In general, the calcite, which is comminute to micronized sizes, is subjected to a surface modification process to convert its hydrophilic structure to a hydrophobic structure. Thus, the product price of micronized+coated calcite increases, while it is better suited to the structure and to improve the final product characteristics in the areas where it is used. Micronized calcite production is performed in grinding circuits and coating is carried out in another process. The surface modification process is based on the method of coating the surface with a coating agent and different coating systems have been developed on the industrial scale. In this study, current information about the surface modification mechanism of calcite, processes, and equipment used are given and application examples are examined. The tests, quality control processes and previous studies performed in the coated calcite sector are presented in Part II.
Surface Modification of Calcite: Part II. Characterization Methods and Quality Control Processes
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In the sectors where calcite is used as filling material, it is desirable to have the surface modified (coated) in terms of compatibility with the structure and its advantages. Many methods and processes can be applied to characterize the ore both in laboratory scale and industrial scale before and after industrial micronized calcite production. These methods and analyzes provide useful knowledge. In addition, they allow the selection of the process appropriate to the technological requirement of usage of calcite, the proper control of the existing process and the realization of R & D studies. Surface modification mechanism of micronized calcite, processes and equipment used are explained in Part I, characterization methods, quality control processes and some of the previous studies are presented in this review.